Analyzing the Effects of Comfort Relaxation on Energy Demand Flexibility of Buildings: A Multiobjective Optimization Approach
|Title||Analyzing the Effects of Comfort Relaxation on Energy Demand Flexibility of Buildings: A Multiobjective Optimization Approach|
|Year of Publication||2014|
|Authors||Morales-Valdes, P, Flores-Tlacuahuac, A, Zavala, VM|
We present a multiobjective optimization framework to evaluate the effects of comfort relaxation on the energy flexibility of buildings. This work is motivated by recent interest in understanding demand elasticity available for real-time electricity market operations and demand response events. We analyze the flexibility provided by an economics-based control architecture that directly minimizes total energy and by a traditional tracking control system that minimizes deviations from reference temperature and relative humidity set-points. Our study provides the following insights: (i) using percentage mean vote (PMV) and predicted percentage dissatisfied (PPD) constraints within an economics-based system consistently gives the most flexibility as comfort is relaxed, (ii) using PMV and PPD penalization objectives results in high comfort volatility, (iii) using temperature and relative humidity bounds severely overestimates flexibility, and (iv) tracking control offers limited flexibility even if used with optimal set-back conditions. We present a strategy to approximate nonlinear comfort regions using linear polyhedral regions, and we demonstrate that this reduces the computational complexity of optimal control formulations.