S. S. Varghese, S. H. Frankel, P. F. Fischer, "Direct Numerical Simulation of Stenotic Flows. Part 1. Steady Flow," Preprint ANL/MCS-P1309-1105, November 2005. [pdf]
Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, a disease of the larger arteries, is ultimately the leading cause of mortality in the world with annually over 19 million people worldwide experiencing a sudden cardiac event. Atherosclerosis is a progressive disease initiated by localized fatty streak lesions within the arteries occurring as early as childhood. Over decades, these lesions can develop into more complex plaques that are large enough to significantly block blood flow within the circulatory system. This local restriction of the artery is known as an arteial stenosis. Plaque deposition is most common in the aorta, coronary and carotid arteries and as one might expect, the presence of a stenosis can lead to serious health risks. Stenoses are commonly characterized as a percentage reduction in diameter or area and are considered clinically significant when the reduction is greater than 75% by area reduction. The progression of a low level arterial blockage into a critical stenosis is in itself the result of complex nonlinear interactions between factors such as flow conditions, wall compliance4, and biological responses.