V. Sizyuk, A. Hassanein, V. Morozov, and T. Sizyuk, "Heights Integrated Model as Instrument for Simulation of Hydrodynamic, Radiation Transport, and Heat Conduction Phenomena of Laser-Produced Plasma in EUV Applications," Argonne Report ANL-MCS-CPH-06/56, February 2006. [pdf]
The HEIGHTS integrated model has been developed as an instrument for simulation and optimization of laer-produced plasma (LPP) sources relevant to extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. The model combines three general parts: hydrodynamics, radiation transport, and heat conduction. The first part employs a total variation diminishing scheme in the Lax-Friedrich formulation (TVD-LF); the second part, a Monte Carlo model; and the third part, implicit schemes with sparse matrix technology. All model parts consider physical processes in three-dimensional geometry. The influence of a generated magnetic field on laser plasma behavior was estimated, and it was found that this effect could be neglected for laser intensities relevant to EUV (up to ~1012 W/cm2). All applied schemes were tested on analytical problems separately. Benchmark modeling of the full EUV source problem with a planar tin target showed good correspondence with experimental and theoretical data. Preliminary results are presented for tin droplet- and planar-target LPP devices. The influence of three-dimensional effects on EUV properties of source is discussed.