L. Wos, R. Veroff, and G. W. Pieper, "Logical Basis for the Automation of Reasoning: Case Studies," Preprint ANL/MCS-P963-0102, January 2002. [pdf]
With the availability of computers in the late 1950s, researchers began to entertain the possibility of automating reasoning. Immediately, two distinctly different approaches were considered as the possible basis for that automation. In one approach, the intention was to study and then emulate prople; in the other, the plan was to rely on mathematical logic. In this paper, we focus mainly on the latter, for logic has proved to provide an excellent basis for the automation of reasoning.