J. W. Larson, "Information-Theoretic Strategies for Quantifying Variability and Model-Reality Comparison in the Climate System," Preprint ANL/MCS-P1609-0409, April 2009. [pdf]
Model-reality comparison can be viewed in a communications context. In this analogy, the observed “real” data are a sent message, and the model
output are the received message. The model plays the role of a noisy channel over which the message is transmitted.